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Welcome to A Time's Memory Blog

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A TIME'S MEMORY - Flu, Bugs & Other Accidents Blog - Year: XIII - Here, Reader, you will find many items if your interests are in the field of emerging threats to global or public health, with a perspective that is not mainstream. Thank to You for the interest!

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21 May 2018

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 21 2018 #Update, Issue No. 117

          

Title:

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 21 2018 #Update, Issue No. 117.

Subject:

Zika Virus Infection and related complications research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code:

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This Issue:

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  1. DAI S, Zhang T, Zhang Y, Wang H, et al.
    • Zika Virus Baculovirus-Expressed Virus-Like Particles Induce Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice.
      • Virol Sin. 2018 May 17. pii: 10.1007/s12250-018-0030.
  2. BARROS JBS, da Silva PAN, Koga RCR, Gonzalez-Dias P, et al.
    • Acute Zika Virus Infection in an Endemic Area Shows Modest Proinflammatory Systemic Immunoactivation and Cytokine-Symptom Associations.
      • Front Immunol. 2018;9:821.
  3. HYGINO DA CRUZ LC JR, Nascimento OJM, Lopes FPPL, da Silva IRF, et al.
    • Neuroimaging Findings of Zika Virus-Associated Neurologic Complications in Adults.
      • AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018 May 17. pii: ajnr.A5649. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5649.
  4. KUMAR S.
    • Sexual transmission of Zika virus: more to explore.
      • Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6:e618.
  5. QUINTANA-DOMEQUE C, Carvalho JR, de Oliveira VH.
    • Zika virus incidence, preventive and reproductive behaviors: Correlates from new survey data.
      • Econ Hum Biol. 2018;30:14-23.
  6. SHERMAN KE, Rouster SD, Kong LX, Shata TM, et al.
    • Zika Virus Exposure in an HIV-Infected Cohort in Ghana.
      • J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Apr 27. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001718.
  7. MUCHAAL PK.
    • Zika virus: Where to from here?
      • Can Commun Dis Rep. 2018;44:27-28.
  8. TATARYN J, Vrbova L, Drebot M, Wood H, et al.
    • Travel-related Zika virus cases in Canada: October 2015-June 2017.
      • Can Commun Dis Rep. 2018;44:18-26.
  9. LINDE AR, Siqueira CE.
    • Women's lives in times of Zika: mosquito-controlled lives? 
      • Cad Saude Publica. 2018;34:e00178917.
  10. DRAZ MS, Lakshminaraasimulu NK, Krishnakumar S, Battalapalli D, et al.
    • Motion-Based Immunological Detection of Zika Virus Using Pt-Nanomotors and a Cellphone.
      • ACS Nano. 2018 May 16. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b01515.
  11. PENG H, Liu B, Yves TD, He Y, et al.
    • Zika Virus Induces Autophagy in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.
      • Viruses. 2018;10.
  12. SCARBROUGH A, Rathnasekara H, Holt M, Hill J, et al.
    • Zika Virus and the Risk for Renter Households.
      • Diseases. 2018;6.
  13. ROBINSON N, Mayorquin Galvan EE, Zavala Trujillo IG, Zavala-Cerna MG, et al.
    • Congenital Zika syndrome: Pitfalls in the placental barrier.
      • Rev Med Virol. 2018 May 15:e1985. doi: 10.1002/rmv.1985.
  14. GEURTSVANKESSEL CH, Islam Z, Islam MB, Kamga S, et al.
    • Zika virus and Guillain-Barre syndrome in Bangladesh.
      • Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2018;5:606-615.
  15. ELIZONDO-QUIROGA D, Medina-Sanchez A, Sanchez-Gonzalez JM, Eckert KA, et al.
    • Author Correction: Zika Virus in Salivary Glands of Five Different Species of Wild-Caught Mosquitoes from Mexico.
      • Sci Rep. 2018;8:7887.
  16. ALIMONTI JB, Ribecco-Lutkiewicz M, Sodja C, Jezierski A, et al.
    • Zika virus crosses an in vitro human blood brain barrier model.
      • Fluids Barriers CNS. 2018;15:15.
  17. DHIMAL M, Dahal S, Dhimal ML, Mishra SR, et al.
    • Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region.
      • Infect Dis Poverty. 2018;7:40.
  18. MIER-Y-TERAN-ROMERO L, Delorey MJ, Sejvar JJ, Johansson MA, et al.
    • Guillain-Barre syndrome risk among individuals infected with Zika virus: a multi-country assessment.
      • BMC Med. 2018;16:67.
  19. DA SILVA S, Oliveira Silva Martins D, Gomes Jardim AC.
    • A Review of the Ongoing Research on Zika Virus Treatment.
      • Viruses. 2018;10.
  20. HERRLINGER SA, Shao Q, Ma L, Brindley M, et al.
    • Establishing Mouse Models for Zika Virus-induced Neurological Disorders Using Intracerebral Injection Strategies: Embryonic, Neonatal, and Adult.
      • J Vis Exp. 2018;.
  21. SMARTT CT, Shin D, Kang S, Tabachnick WJ, et al.
    • Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) From Florida Transmitted Zika Virus.
      • Front Microbiol. 2018;9:768.
  22. WANG R, Liao X, Fan D, Wang L, et al.
    • Maternal immunization with a DNA vaccine candidate elicits specific passive protection against post-natal Zika virus infection in immunocompetent BALB/c mice.
      • Vaccine. 2018 May 9. pii: S0264-410X(18)30548.
  23. RICHNER JM, Diamond MS.
    • Zika virus vaccines: immune response, current status, and future challenges.
      • Curr Opin Immunol. 2018;53:130-136.
  24. DA SILVA LRC.
    • Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract.
      • Pathogens. 2018;7.
  25. ALFONSO-PARRA C, Avila FW.
    • Molecular Responses to the Zika Virus in Mosquitoes.
      • Pathogens. 2018;7.
  26. BRISSETT DI, Tuholske C, Allen IE, Larios NS, et al.
    • Zika Virus: Knowledge Assessment of Residents and Health-Care Providers in Roatan, Honduras, following an Outbreak.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 May 14. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0014.
  27. DELATORRE E, Miranda M, Tschoeke DA, Carvalho de Sequeira P, et al.
    • An observational clinical case of Zika virus-associated neurological disease is associated with primary IgG response and enhanced TNF levels.
      • J Gen Virol. 2018 May 17. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001080.
  28. NAVECA FG, Pontes GS, Chang AY, Silva GAVD, et al.
    • Analysis of the immunological biomarker profile during acute Zika virus infection reveals the overexpression of CXCL10, a chemokine linked to neuronal damage.
      • Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2018;113:e170542.
  29. FREIRE CCM, Palmisano G, Braconi CT, Cugola FR, et al.
    • NS1 codon usage adaptation to humans in pandemic Zika virus.
      • Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2018;113:e170385.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika References Library.

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20 May 2018

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, #H7N9, B] Weekly #Report - Wk 19 ‘18 (CNIC, May 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, #H7N9, B] Weekly #Report - Wk 19 ‘18.

Subject:

Human and Animal Influenza Viruses, A (H1, H3, H7) & B subtypes, current epidemiological situation in China.

Source:

National Influenza Centre, PR of China, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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#China, Influenza Weekly Report - Week 19 2018

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(All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received)


Summary

  • During week 19, influenza activity in both southern and northern provinces was at inter-seasonal levels, only a few influenza viruses can be detected, the majority were A(H1N1)pdm09.
  • Among influenza viruses antigenically characterized by CNIC since October 1st, 2017:
    • 357(94.2%) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were characterized as A/Michigan/45/2015-like;
    • 116(32.3%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)(EGG)-like,
    • 324(90.3%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)(CELL)-like;
    • 106(53.8%) influenza B/Victoria viruses were characterized as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like;
    • 592(97.0%) influenza B/Yamagata viruses were characterized as B/Phuket/3073/2013-like.
  • Among the influenza viruses tested by CNIC for antiviral resistance analysis since October 1st, 2017:
    • all influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were resistant to adamantine;
    • All influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B viruses were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.


Outbreak Surveillance

  • During week 19(Apr 7th –May 13th, 2018), there were 6 outbreaks reported nationwide, 5 of them were A(H1N1)pdm09, 1 of them was not obtained the detection result.


Surveillance of outpatient or emergency visits for Influenza-like Illness (ILI)

  • During week 19, the percentage of outpatient or emergency visits for ILI (ILI %) at national sentinel hospitals in south China was 3.7%, lower than the last week (3.9%), higher than the same week of 2015 - 2017(2.9%,3.6%,3.2%). (Figure 1)
  • During week 19, ILI% at national sentinel hospitals in north China was 2.3%, lower than last week and the same week of 2017(both 2.6%), same as the same week of 2015-2016 (both 2.3%). (Figure 2)

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Figure 1. Percentage of Visits for ILI at Sentinel Hospitals in South China (2015-2019)

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Figure 2. Percentage of Visits for ILI at Sentinel Hospitals in North China (2015-2019)

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Virologic Surveillance

  • During week 19, influenza network laboratories tested 4291 specimens, of which 76(1.8%) were positive for influenza, influenza A and influenza B viruses were 59(77.6%) and 17(22.4%), respectively (Table 1).
  • During week 19, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in south China was 2.0%, which was lower than the previous week (2.5%) (Figure 3).
  • During week 19, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in north China was 1.3%, which was lower than the previous week (2.7%). (Figure 4).


Table 1 Laboratory Detections of ILI Specimens (Week 19, 2018)

[Week 19: South China - North China – Total]

  • No. of specimens tested – 3104 – 1187 – 4291
    • No. of positive specimens (%) - 61(2.0%) - 15(1.3%) - 76(1.8%)
      • Influenza A - 50(82.0%) - 9(60.0%) - 59(77.6%)
        • A(H3N2) - 2(4.0%) - 2(22.2%) - 4(6.8%)
        • A(H1N1)pdm09 - 48(96.0%) - 7(77.8%) - 55(93.2%)
        • A (subtype not determined) - 2(3.3%) - 0(0) - 2(3.0%)
      • Influenza B - 11(18.0%) - 6(40.0%) - 17(22.4%)
        • B (lineage not determined) - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
        • Victoria - 2(18.2%) - 3(50.0%) - 5(29.4%)
        • Yamagata - 9(81.8%) - 3(50.0%) - 12(70.6%)

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Figure 3. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Southern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2017–Week 19, 2018)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the test results of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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Figure 4. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Northern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2017–Week 19, 2018)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the result of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

(…)

H7N9 case report

  • Since the notification of human infection with novel reassortant influenza A(H7N9) virus on 31 March 2013, in total 1564 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported to WHO.
  • Among them, 32 cases were infected with HPAI A(H7N9) virus, which have mutations in the hemagglutinin gene indicating a change to high pathogenicity in poultry.
  • These 32 cases are from Taiwan (the case had travel history to Guangdong), Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, Shaanxi, Hebei, Henan, Fujian, Yunnan provinces, with illness onset date before October 2017.
  • No increased transmissibility or virulence to human case was detected in the HPAI A(H7N9) virus.

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|-- china flu report 1819.pdf –|

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Keywords: China; Updates; Seasonal Influenza; Avian Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; H7N9.

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#EBOLA : des #experts pour la #vaccination de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et de la #DRC arrivent à #Mbandaka pour démarrer la #vaccination préventive ciblée (@WHO, May 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#EBOLA : des #experts pour la #vaccination de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et de la #DRC arrivent à #Mbandaka pour démarrer la #vaccination préventive ciblée.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, preparation for ring Ebola vaccination in the affected area.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

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EBOLA : des experts pour la vaccination de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et de la RDC arrivent à Mbandaka pour démarrer la vaccination préventive ciblée.

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KINSHASA, 19 MAI 2018.

En raison du risque toujours élevé de propagation de l’épidémie de la maladie à virus ’Ebola en République Démocratique du Congo, l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) a envoyé aujourd’hui à Mbandaka plus de 35 experts de la vaccination dont 16 mobilisés en Afrique de l’Ouest pour leur expérience antérieure dans le domaine, et 19 autres de la RDC récemment formés à Kinshasa.

‘‘L’OMS compte beaucoup sur vous. Le travail de vaccination contre Ebola que vous allez effectuer sur le terrain est très encourageant et prometteur pour les groupes de gens ayant été en contact avec un malade, y compris les professionnels de santé en première ligne dans les zones où le risque de contamination demeure potentiellement élevé,’’ a indiqué le Dr Michael J. Ryan, l’Assistant du Directeur général de l’OMS arrivé à Kinshasa jeudi soir.

‘‘Ces équipes bien formées vont vacciner et faire également le suivi des personnes ayant reçu le vaccin, que ce soit à Mbandaka ou dans les zones de santé de Bikoro et d’Iboko pour espérer endiguer l'épidémie en cours,’’ a expliqué le Dr Allarangar Yokouidé, Représentant de l'OMS en RDC.

La particularité de cette campagne préventive consiste à vacciner des cercles de personnes qui ont été en contact direct avec un malade et les contacts de deuxième niveau de ces derniers qu’on appelle ‘contacts des contacts’.

Cette campagne de vaccination anti Ebola, la première du genre en RDC, devrait faire face à d’importants défis logistiques.

Le vaccin V920rVSV-ZEBOV a une particularité d’être conservé à une température de -80 degrés Celsius avant d’être acheminé vers les zones éloignées et affectées par le virus mortel.

Un nouveau lot de 3200 doses de vaccins contre la maladie à virus Ebola fourni par l’OMS est attendu à Kinshasa samedi 19 mai pour compléter les premières 4300 doses arrivées mercredi dernier pour faire un total de 7500 doses.

L’OMS a en outre envoyé à Mbandaka d’autres kits de protection individuelle (PPE) estimés à plus de 7.000 combinaisons.

L’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) a annoncé vendredi le déploiement d’épidémiologistes et de personnel médical dans la capitale de la RDC, Kinshasa, ainsi que d’autres positionnés sur une dizaine de points d’entrée aux postes frontières de la RDC afin de renforcer la prévention contre la propagation d’Ebola.

Pour sa part, le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) a mobilisé, selon lui, plus de 200 volontaires dans le but de prévenir l’extension de la maladie à virus Ebola dans les villes ou provinces à haut risque.

Dans le même temps, l’UNICEF a mobilisé et déployé une centaine de relais communautaires en vue de renforcer la sensibilisation parmi des enfants et les familles pour les protéger contre la maladie. Les animateurs communautaires joueront un rôle crucial de mobilisation sociale dans les zones de santé de Bikoro, Bolenge, Iboko, Mbandaka, Wangata etc.  en fournissant des informations pertinentes sur la campagne de vaccination en ceinture planifiée contre Ebola.


Les partenaires de l’OMS participant à la riposte

  1. Fédération internationale des sociétés de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge (FICR),
  2. Croix-Rouge congolaise,
  3. Croix-Rouge de la République Démocratique du Congo,
  4. Médecins sans frontières (MSF),
  5. Fonds d’urgence pour les secours en cas de catastrophes (DREF),
  6. Centres africains de contrôle et de prévention des maladies (CDC-Afrique),
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention des États-Unis d’Amérique (CDC),
  8. Programme alimentaire mondial (PAM),
  9. UNICEF,
  10. OCHA,
  11. MONUSCO,
  12. Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM),
  13. Centre de gestion des crises – Santé animale de la FAO,
  14. Partenariat humanitaire international (IHP),
  15. Alliance Gavi,
  16. African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET),
  17. équipe Public Health Rapid Support du Royaume-Uni,
  18. réseau des anciens élèves de l’EPIET (EAN),
  19. Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OIE) et
  20. Réseau pour l’évaluation clinique des maladies émergentes et l’action (EDCARN).

En outre, le Réseau mondial d’alerte et d’action en cas d’épidémie (GOARN) et les équipes médicales d’urgence fournissent une coordination et un appui technique supplémentaire.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC; International Cooperation.

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#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library– May 20 2018 Issue

          

Title:

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library– May 20 2018 Issue.

Subject:

Human and Animal Influenza Viruses, other respiratory pathogens research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code:

[  R  ]

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This Issue:

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  1. CALIFANO D, Furuya Y, Metzger DW.
    • Effects of Influenza on Alveolar Macrophage Viability Are Dependent on Mouse Genetic Strain.
      • J Immunol. 2018 May 14. pii: jimmunol.1701406. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701406.
  2. RICHARDS KA, Treanor JJ, Nayak JL, Sant AJ, et al.
    • Overarching Immunodominance Patterns and Substantial Diversity in Specificity and Functionality in the Circulating Human Influenza A and B CD4 T Cell Repertoire.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 May 12. pii: 4995466. doi: 10.1093.
  3. VENKATESH D, Poen MJ, Bestebroer TM, Scheuer RD, et al.
    • Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem.
      • J Virol. 2018 May 16. pii: JVI.00433-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00433.
  4. PENG W, Bouwman KM, McBride R, Grant OC, et al.
    • Enhanced Human-Type Receptor Binding by Ferret-Transmissible H5N1 with a K193T Mutation.
      • J Virol. 2018;92.
  5. JAIN S, George PJ, Deng W, Koussa J, et al.
    • The parasite-derived rOv-ASP-1 is an effective antigen-sparing CD4(+) T cell-dependent adjuvant for the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, and functions in the absence of MyD88 pathway.
      • Vaccine. 2018 May 12. pii: S0264-410X(18)30636.
  6. KAHN KE, Santibanez TA, Zhai Y, Bridges CB, et al.
    • Association between provider recommendation and influenza vaccination status among children.
      • Vaccine. 2018 May 12. pii: S0264-410X(18)30584.
  7. LI Y, Sun L, Zheng W, Madina Mahesutihan, et al.
    • Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of threonine 188 in nucleoprotein is crucial for the replication of influenza A virus.
      • Virology. 2018;520:30-38.
  8. RUDNEVA IA, Timofeeva TA, Mukasheva EA, Ignatieva AV, et al.
    • Pleiotropic effects of hemagglutinin amino acid substitutions of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus escape mutants.
      • Virus Res. 2018;251:91-97.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Influenza References Library.

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19 May 2018

#China, #Guangdong: First #Human Case of #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 of the year discharged from hospital (CNR, May 19 ‘18)

          

Title:

First Human Case of Avian Influenza H7N9 of the year discharged from hospital.

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human case in Guangdong province, PR of China.

Source:

China National Radio, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

Code:

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This year first case of H7N9 influenza patient in Guangdong recovered and discharged

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2018-05-19 11:45:00 Source: Guangzhou Daily

Guangzhou Daily Zhongshan News (All-Media Reporter Zhang Xiangyu Correspondent Lin Ruzhu Tang Liuqing) On the morning of the 18th, in the ward of the Rehabilitation Medicine Department of the People's Hospital of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, Aunt Liu, the first H7N9 bird flu patient in the province, was examined by a doctor. After the day's rescue and more than 40 days of rehabilitation, she is about to be discharged.

On February 3 this year, Aunt Liu, who raised chickens in Zhongshan, developed cough. At first thought that it was a common cold, but after seven days of transfer to the two hospitals, Liu Alu gradually developed symptoms of high fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. He was sent to the ICU ward in Zhongshan. The detection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by Liu Alu was affected by H7N9. This is also the first case of H7N9 reported in the province this year.

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Keywords: China; Guangdong; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human.

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#Ebola Virus Disease #Outbreak in the #DRC, #Situation #Report No. 3 (@WHO, May 19 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Ebola Virus Disease #Outbreak in the #DRC, #Situation #Report No. 3.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), via ReliefWeb, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code:

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC.

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18 May 2018

#HK, Suspected #MERS #Coronavirus case reported (CHP, May 18 ‘18)

          

Title:

#HK, Suspected #MERS #Coronavirus case reported.

Subject:

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source:

Centre for Health Protection (CHP), Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Suspected MERS case reported

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (May 18) reported a suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of the health risks in the places of visit.

The case is detailed below:

  • Sex – Male
  • Age – 29
  • Affected area involved - Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • High-risk exposure - Camel ride
  • Hospital - Tuen Mun Hospital
  • Condition – Stable
  • MERS-Coronavirus preliminary test result – Negative

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(…)

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nepal [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, May 18 ‘18)

          

Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nepal [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, poultry epizootics in Nepal.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Nepal

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Information received on 18/05/2018 from Dr Bimal Kumar Nirmal, Doctor, Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Livestock Development, NEPAL, Nepal

  • Summary
    • Report type    Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event    03/05/2018
    • Date of confirmation of the event    15/05/2018
    • Report date    18/05/2018
    • Date submitted to OIE    18/05/2018
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    10/03/2017
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks   
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Outbreak Location: Narayani ( Khairehani-9, Khairehani, Chitwon )
          • Total animals affected:    Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
            • Birds     - 1500     - 1500     - 1500     - 0     - 0
    • Outbreak statistics:    Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
      • Birds    - 100.00%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
        • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • Commercial layers of 72 weeks, reared by the farmer, started exhibiting symptoms of cyanotic comb, mucus discharge from nostril, swollen head, and sudden death. Loss of egg production and feed consumption were observed.
    • Free ranged local domestic ducks nearby the infected farm started to die 2 weeks earlier.
    • However, this mortality was not reported.
    • Birds in the affected farm died within two weeks time.
    • Dead birds were disposed of in the disposal pit nearby the farm with proper disinfection.
    • Stamping out of the birds in the infected zone has started.
    • The number of birds stamped out in the infected zone will be reported in the follow-up reports.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied   
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Screening
      • Quarantine
      • Official destruction of animal products
      • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
      • Stamping out
      • Disinfection
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied   
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type    - Central Veterinary Laboratory, Tripureshwor ( National laboratory )
      • Tests and results:    Species    - Test    - Test date    - Result
        • Birds    - rapid tests    - 15/05/2018    - Positive
        • Birds    - real-time PCR    - 15/05/2018    - Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N1 ; Poultry; Nepal.

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#Statement on the 1st #meeting of the #IHR #EC regarding the #Ebola #outbreak in 2018 (@WHO, May 18 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Statement on the 1st #meeting of the #IHR #EC regarding the #Ebola #outbreak in 2018.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo; Emergency Committee Meeting under IHR(2005).

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     | INTL ]

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Statement on the 1st meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee regarding the Ebola outbreak in 2018

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18 May 2018 / Statement

The 1st meeting of the Emergency Committee convened by the WHO Director-General under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) regarding the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo took place on Friday 18 May 2018, from 11:00 to 14:00 Geneva time (CET).


Emergency Committee conclusion

It was the view of the Committee that the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) have not currently been met.


Meeting

Members and advisors of the Emergency Committee met by teleconference. Presentations were made by representatives of the Democratic Republic of the Congo on recent developments, including measures taken to implement rapid control strategies, and existing gaps and challenges in the outbreak response.

During the informational session, the WHO Secretariat provided an update on and assessment of the Ebola outbreak.

The Committee’s role was to provide to the Director-General their views and perspectives on:

  • Whether the event constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
  • If the event constitutes a PHEIC, what Temporary Recommendations should be made


Current situation

On 8 May, WHO was notified by the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo of two lab-confirmed cases of Ebola Virus Disease occurring in Bikoro health zone, Equateur province.

Cases have now also been found in nearby Iboko and Mbandaka.

From 4 April to 17 May 2018, 45 EVD cases have been reported, including in three health care workers, and 25 deaths have been reported.

Of these 45 cases, 14 have been confirmed.

Most of these cases have been in the remote Bikoro health zone, although one confirmed case is in Mbandaka, a city of 1.2 million, which has implications for its spread.

Nine neighbouring countries, including Congo-Brazzaville and Central African Republic, have been advised that they are at high risk of spread and have been supported with equipment and personnel.


Key Challenges

After discussion and deliberation on the information provided, the Committee concluded these key challenges:

  • The Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has several characteristics that are of particular concern:
    • the risk of more rapid spread given that Ebola has now spread to an urban area;
    • that there are several outbreaks in remote and hard to reach areas;
    • that health care staff have been infected, which may be a risk for further amplification.
  • The risk of international spread is particularly high since the city of Mbandaka is in proximity to the Congo river, which has significant regional traffic across porous borders.
  • There are huge logistical challenges given the poor infrastructure and remote location of most cases currently reported; these factors affect surveillance, case detection and confirmation, contact tracing, and access to vaccines and therapeutics.

However, the Committee also noted the following:

  • The response by the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, WHO and partners has been rapid and comprehensive.
  • Interventions underway provide strong reason to believe that the outbreak can be brought under control, including: enhanced surveillance, establishment of case management facilities, deployment of mobile laboratories, expanded engagement of community leaders, establishment of an airbridge, and other planned interventions.
  • In addition, the advanced preparations for use of the investigational vaccine provide further cause for optimism for control

In conclusion, the Emergency Committee, while noting that the conditions for a PHEIC are not currently met, issued Public Health Advice as follows:

  • Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, WHO, and partners remain engaged in a vigorous response – without this, the situation is likely to deteriorate significantly. This response should be supported by the entire international community.
  • Global solidarity among the scientific community is critical and international data should be shared freely and regularly.
  • It is particularly important there should be no international travel or trade restrictions.
  • Neighbouring countries should strengthen preparedness and surveillance.
  • During the response, safety and security of staff should be ensured, and protection of responders and national and international staff should prioritised.
  • Exit screening, including at airports and ports on the Congo river, is considered to be of great importance; however entry screening, particularly in distant airports, is not considered to be of any public health or cost-benefit value.
  • Robust risk communication (with real-time data), social mobilisation, and community engagement are needed for a well-coordinated response and so that those affected understand what protection measures are being recommended;  
  • If the outbreak expands significantly, or if there is international spread,  the Emergency Committee will be reconvened.  

The Committee emphasized the importance of continued support by WHO and other national and international partners towards the effective implementation and monitoring of this advice.

Based on this advice, the reports made by the affected States Parties, and the currently available information, the Director-General accepted the Committee’s assessment and on 18 May 2018 did not declare the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

In light of the advice of the Emergency Committee, WHO advises against the application of any travel or trade restrictions.

The Director-General thanked the Committee Members and Advisors for their advice.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC; IHR(2005); PHEIC.

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Weekly #US #Influenza #Surveillance #Report- 2017-18 Season, Wk 19 ending May 12, 2018 (@CDCgov, summary)

          

Title:

Weekly #US #Influenza #Surveillance #Report- 2017-18 Season, Wk 19 ending May 12, 2018.

Subject:

Human Influenza Viruses, A (H1, H3) & B subtypes, current epidemiological situation in the US.

Source:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), FluView, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.

Code:

[     ]

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Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report- 2017-2018 Influenza Season Week 19 ending May 12, 2018

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Language: [ English (US) | Español ]

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All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.


Synopsis:

    • During week 19 (May 6-12, 2018), influenza activity continued to decrease in the United States.
  • Viral Surveillance:
    • Overall, influenza A(H3) viruses have predominated this season.
    • Since early March, influenza B viruses have been more frequently reported than influenza A viruses.
    • The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality:
    • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths:
    • Three influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations:
    • A cumulative rate of 106.6 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance:
    • The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 1.2%, which is below the national baseline of 2.2%.
    • All 10 regions reported ILI below region-specific baseline levels.
    • New York City, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and all 50 states experienced minimal ILI activity.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza:
    • The geographic spread of influenza in two states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and three states reported regional activity; nine states reported local activity; the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands and 33 states reported sporadic activity; and three states reported no influenza activity.

(…)

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Seasonal Influenza.

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