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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

26 Jul 2017

#Avian #Influenza [#H5N1, #H5N6, #H7N9] – Weekly #Update No. 594, 21 July 2017 (@WHO WPRO, edited)


Title: #Avian #Influenza [#H5N1, #H5N6, #H7N9] – Weekly #Update No. 594, 21 July 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5 & H7N9 subtypes, human cases in the Western Pacific Region of the WHO.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for the Western Pacific Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Avian Influenza - Weekly Update No. 594, 21 July 2017

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Asian Region; Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N6; H7N9; Human.

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#Yemen: #Cholera #Outbreak - Daily epidemiology #update, 26 July 2017 (@WHO EMRO, summary)


Title: #Yemen: #Cholera #Outbreak - Daily epidemiology #update, 26 July 2017.

Subject: Cholera outbreak in Yemen, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, full page: (LINK). Summary.

Code: [     ]

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Yemen: Cholera Outbreak - Daily epidemiology update, 26 July 2017

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Highlights

  • From 27 April to 25 July 2017, 402,484 suspected cholera cases and 1,880 deaths (CFR: 0.5%) have been reported in 91.3% (21/23) of Yemen governorates, and 88.9% (296/333) of the districts.


Geographical distribution of cases 

  • The five most affected governorates were:
    • Amanat Al Asimah,
    • Al Hudaydah,
    • Hajjah,
    • Amran and
    • Ibb
  • with 53.2% (214,281/402,484) of the cases reported since 27 April 2017.
  • Al Mahwit, Al Dhaele’e, and Amran governorates had the highest attack rates (30.8‰, 29.9‰ and 26.8‰ respectively) 
  • Raymah ,Hajjah and Ibb governorates reported the highest case fatality ratios (1.2% ,0.8% and 0.8% respectively) (see table).

(…)

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Keywords: Cholera; Yemen; Updates; WHO.

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Asian Lineage #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Virus – #Situation as of July 25 2017 (@CDCgov, edited)


Title: Asian Lineage #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Virus – #Situation as of July 25 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus – Situation as of July 25 2017

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Language: [ English (US) | Español ]

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Background

  • Human infections with an Asian lineage avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (“Asian H7N9”) were first reported in China in March 2013.
  • Annual epidemics of sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses in China have been reported since that time.
  • China is currently experiencing its 5th epidemic of Asian H7N9 human infections.
  • This is the largest annual epidemic to date.
  • As of July 19, 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported 756 human infections with Asian H7N9 virus during the 5th epidemic, making the largest epidemic to date.
  • This brings the total cumulative number of human infections with Asian lineage H7N9 reported by WHO to 1,554.
  • Additional infections have been reported, but not yet publically announced by WHO.
  • During epidemics one through four, about 40 percent of people confirmed with Asian H7N9 virus infection died.


Epidemiology

  • Most human infections with avian influenza viruses, including Asian H7N9 virus, have occurred after exposure to poultry; Asian H7N9 viruses continue to circulate in poultry in China.
  • Most reported patients with H7N9 virus infection have had severe respiratory illness (e.g., pneumonia).
  • Rare instances of limited person-to-person spread of this virus have been identified in China, but there is no evidence of sustained person-to-person spread.
  • Some human infections with Asian H7N9 have been reported outside of mainland China, but most of these infections have occurred among people who had traveled to mainland China before becoming ill.
  • Asian H7N9 viruses have not been detected in people or birds in the United States.


CDC Risk Assessment

  • While the current risk to the public’s health posed by Asian H7N9 virus is low, the pandemic potential of this virus is concerning.
  • Influenza viruses constantly change and it is possible that this virus could gain the ability to spread easily and sustainably among people, triggering a global outbreak of disease (i.e., a pandemic).
  • In fact, of the novel influenza A viruses that are of special concern to public health, Asian lineage H7N9 virus is rated by the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) as having the greatest potential to cause a pandemic, as well as potentially posing the greatest risk to severely impact public health.
  • It is likely that sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 virus associated with poultry exposure will continue to occur in China.
  • There is also a possibility of Asian H7N9 virus spreading to poultry in neighboring countries and human infections associated with poultry exposure may be detected in neighboring countries.
  • Asian H7N9 infections may continue to be detected among travelers returning from countries where this virus is present.
  • However, as long as there is no evidence of ongoing, sustained person-to-person spread, the public health risk assessment would not change substantially.


CDC Response

  • The U.S. Government supports international surveillance for seasonal and novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential, including Asian lineage H7N9.
  • CDC collaborates with clinical and public health laboratories located in all 50 states.
  • Each week, these laboratories routinely test human respiratory specimens for influenza and report those results to CDC.
  • Any suspected novel influenza A virus, including an Asian lineage H7N9, detected at a public health laboratory is forwarded onto CDC for confirmatory testing.
  • CDC is following this situation closely and is coordinating with domestic and international partners.
  • CDC takes routine preparedness actions to counter pandemic threats as they are identified, including developing candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) to use for vaccine production in case vaccine is needed.
  • CDC has prepared a risk assessment of Asian H7N9.
  • Other routine preparedness activities include ongoing review of new viruses and virus sequences to assess their genetic and antigenic properties as well as their antiviral susceptibility.
  • This information informs an ongoing risk assessment process, which guides further actions.
  • CDC also has issued guidance to clinicians and public health authorities in the United States, as well as provided information for people traveling to China.
  • CDC will provide updated information as it becomes available.

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Asian H7N9 Outbreak Characterization

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An influenza A H7N9 virus as viewed through an electron microscope. Both filaments and spheres are observed in these photos.

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  • Asian H7N9 virus infections in poultry in China
  • Sporadic infections in people; most with poultry exposure
  • Rare limited person-to-person spread
  • No sustained or community transmission

H7N9: What should I do?

  • CDC does not have any new or special recommendations for the U.S. public at this time regarding H7N9. CDC will keep you updated. Stay informed.
  • Since Asian H7N9 is not spreading easily from person to person at this time, CDC does not recommend that people delay or cancel trips to China. The World Health Organization also is watching this situation closely and does not recommend any travel restrictions.
  • CDC advises travelers to China to take some common sense precautions, like not touching birds and washing hands often. Poultry and poultry products should be fully cooked. CDC will update its advice for travelers if the situation in China changes. This guidance is available at Avian Flu (H7N9) in China.

Recently Reported

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; China; Poultry; Human; H7N9; Avian Influenza.

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25 Jul 2017

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #Taiwan [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jul 25 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #Taiwan  [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N2 subtype, poultry epizootics in Taiwan.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2, Chinese Taipei

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Information received on 25/07/2017 from Dr Tai-Hwa Shih, Chief Veterinary Officer, Deputy Director General, Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Ministry of Agriculture, Taipei, Chinese Taipei

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 69
    • Date of start of the event    07/01/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event    11/01/2015
    • Report date    24/07/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    25/07/2017
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    23/07/2014
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N2
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of – Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 18722    - 1680    - 1680    - 17042    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 8.97%    - 8.97%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • Samples from 1 poultry farm in Changhua County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for analysis.
    • Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by the AHRI.
    • The farm has been placed under movement restriction.
    • All animals on the infected farm have been culled.
    • Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation.
    • Surrounding poultry farms within a 3 km radius of the infected farm are under intensified surveillance for 3 months.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N2; Poultry; Taiwan.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5, #Italy [a #poultry #outbreak] (#IZSVE, Jul 25 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5, #Italy [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5 subtype, poultry epizootics in Italy.

Source: National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Padua, Italy, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Italy

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Summary

  • On the evening of 24 July, an increase in mortality was reported in a turkey meat farm in Verona province (Veneto region).
  • On 25 July, the IZS delle Venezie confirmed the case as positive for Avian Influenza virus subtype H5.
  • At the moment of the epidemiological investigation, 17.724 turkeys (112 days-old) were present.
  • Starting on Sunday, a slight increase in mortality was observed in one of the five sheds at the farm.
  • The farm is located in one of the most densely populated poultry areas in Italy.

(…)

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Keywords: Italy; Updates; H5; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Italy.

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#HK, Suspected #MERS cases reported (CHP, Jul 25 ‘17)


Title: #HK, Suspected #MERS cases reported.

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported cases in Hong Kong.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Suspected MERS cases reported

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (July 25) reported suspected cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of health risks in the places they visit.     

The cases involve two children of a tourist family originating from Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Two brothers, aged 23 months and five years, who arrived in Hong Kong after travelling to the Philippines with their parents, have presented with fever.

They were admitted to Princess Margaret Hospital and are now in a stable condition.

They have had no contact with camels or other patients.

Their cases tested negative for MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) upon preliminary testing by the CHP's Public Health Laboratory Services Branch.

(…)

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Myanmar [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Jul 25 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Myanmar [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, poultry epizootics in Myanmar.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Myanmar

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Information received on 25/07/2017 from Dr Ye Tun Win, Chief Veterinary Officer Director General, Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

  • Summary
    • Report type  Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event  16/07/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event  23/07/2017
    • Report date  25/07/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE  25/07/2017
    • Reason for notification  Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence  06/04/2016
    • Manifestation of disease  Clinical disease
    • Causal agent  Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype  H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis  Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to  a defined zone within the country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Outbreak Location  -   Tanintharyi Region ( We kyun htein thit, Dawei, Dawei )
      • Total animals affected:  Species -  Susceptible -  Cases -  Deaths -  Killed and disposed of – Slaughtered
        • Birds  -  5000  -  3194  -  3194  -  1806  -  0
      • Outbreak statistics:  Species -  Apparent morbidity rate -  Apparent mortality rate -  Apparent case fatality rate -  Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds -  63.88% -  63.88% -  100.00% -  100.00%
          • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Lack of bio security of the farm and a small holder has an illegal processing place located in front of the farm.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
      • Quarantine
      • Stamping out
      • Zoning
      • Disinfection
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type -  Yangon Diagnostic Laboratory ( National laboratory )
      • Tests and results:  Species -  Test -  Test date -  Result
        • Birds -  rapid tests -  23/07/2017 -  Positive
        • Birds -  real-time PCR -  23/07/2017 -  Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
       

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N1 ; Poultry; Myanmar.

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#Avian #Influenza [#H5N1, #H5N6, #H7N9] #Report - July 16-22 ‘17 (Wk 29) (#HK CHP, Jul 25 ‘17)


Title: #Avian #Influenza [#H5N1, #H5N6, #H7N9] #Report - July 16-22 ‘17 (Wk 29).

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5 & H7N9 subtypes, global poultry panzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Avian Influenza Report - Reporting period: July 16, 2017 – July 22, 2017 (Week 29) (Published on July 25, 2017)

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Avian Influenza Report is a weekly report produced by the Respiratory Disease Office, Centre for Health Protection of the Department of Health. This report highlights global avian influenza activity in humans and birds.

VOLUME 13, NUMBER 29

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N6; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China; Worldwide.

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#Yemen: #Cholera #Outbreak–Daily #epidemiology #update, 25 July 2017 (@WHO EMRO, summary)


Title: #Yemen: #Cholera #Outbreak–Daily #epidemiology #update, 25 July 2017.

Subject: Cholera outbreak in Yemen, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, full PDF file: (LINK). Summary.

Code: [     ]

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Yemen: Cholera Outbreak - Daily epidemiology update, 25 July 2017

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Highlights

  • From 27 April to 24 July 2017, 396,086 suspected cholera cases and 1,869 deaths (CFR: 0.5%) have been reported in 91.3% (21/23) of Yemen governorates, and 88.6% (295/333) of the districts.


Geographical distribution of cases

  • The five most affected governorates were:
    • Amanat Al Asimah,
    • Al Hudaydah,
    • Hajjah,
    • Amran and
    • Ibb
  • with 53.2% (210,718/396,086) of the cases reported since 27 April 2017.
  • Al Mahwit, Al Dhaele’e, and Amran governorates had the highest attack rates (30.1‰, 29.5‰ and 26.5‰ respectively) 
  • Raymah ,Hajjah and Ibb governorates reported the highest case fatality ratios (1.3% ,0.9% and 0.8% respectively) (see table). 

(…)

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Yemen; Cholera.

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#Influenza – #Global #Update No. 294, based on data up to 09 July 2017 (@WHO, summary)


Title: #Influenza – #Global #Update No. 294, based on data up to 09 July 2017.

Subject: Human Influenza Viruses, global activity surveillance, weekly report.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK). Summary.

Code: [     ]

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Influenza update – Update No. 294, based on data up to 09 July 2017

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|-- Open map in new window jpg, 448kb –|


Summary

    • In the temperate zone of the southern hemisphere, high levels of influenza activity continued to be reported.
    • A few countries in Central America, the Caribbean and South East Asia also reported increased influenza activity.
    • Influenza activity in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere was reported at low levels.
    • Worldwide, influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses co-circulated.
  • In the temperate zone of the Southern Hemisphere, influenza activity increased or peaked in most countries in recent weeks.
  • In temperate South America, influenza activity remained high but appeared to have peaked in most of the countries.
    • In Uruguay, severe acute respiratory infection and influenza activities continued to increase.
    • Influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominated in the region with some B virus activity reported as well.
  • In Oceania, seasonal influenza activity continued to increase, with influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses present in the region.
    • In Australia, influenza activity was following the seasonal pattern.
    • An increasing trend of ILI and SARI activities was reported in New Zealand in recent weeks, with influenza like illness (ILI) remaining just above the seasonal threshold level.
    • Influenza activity also increased with influenza A(H3N2) and B Yamagata lineage viruses predominantly detected.
    • Other respiratory virus activity remained stable.
  • In Southern Africa, seasonal activity continued to increase with influenza A(H3N2) being the most detected subtype followed by A(H1N1)pdm09.
  • In the Caribbean, respiratory virus activity remained low in most countries with the exception of Cuba reporting an increase of influenza A(H3N2) viruses and RSV detections in recent weeks.
    • In Central America, influenza activity continued to increase in El Salvador and Honduras, and in Costa Rica and Nicaragua with influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses detected, respectively.
    • Increasing trends of acute respiratory infections (ARI), SARI and pneumonia were reported in El Salvador as well.
  • In tropical South America, influenza activity remained low.
  • In Western Africa, few influenza detections were reported in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Senegal and Togo.
    • In Eastern Africa, influenza activity continued to decrease.
    • In both influenza transmission zones, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses co-circulated.
  • In Southern Asia, low levels of influenza activity continued to be reported, with influenza A(H1N1) virus predominant.
  • In South East Asia, influenza activity continued to increase in some countries and decreased in other countries.
    • In Singapore, ILI and influenza activity appeared to decrease after peaking in week 20, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominant.
    • Increased influenza activity was reported in Thailand, with all seasonal influenza subtypes co-circulating.
    • In the Philippines, influenza detections appeared to decrease with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominant.
    • ILI and influenza activity continued to increase in Southern China and to a high level in Hong Kong, SAR, China, with detections of predominantly influenza A(H3N2) viruses.
    • Increased SARI activity was also reported in Hong Kong, SAR, China.
  • In North America, little to no influenza activity was reported.
  • In Europe, little to no influenza activity was reported.
  • In Northern Africa, no influenza virus detections were reported.
  • In Western Asia, a few influenza virus detections were reported in recent weeks.
    • SARI activity continued to decrease in Armenia and Georgia.
  • In Central Asia, there were no updated reports on virus detections or respiratory illness indicators.
  • In East Asia, influenza activity remained low. A few detections of influenza A(H3N2) viruses were reported in Northern China and Republic of Korea.

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National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 68 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 26 June 2017 to 09 July 2017 (data as of 2017-07- 20 15:26:16 UTC).

The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 50 673 specimens during that time period.

6764 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 5983 (88.5%) were typed as influenza A and 781 (11.5%) as influenza B.

Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 680 (12.5%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 4762 (87.5%) were influenza A(H3N2).

Of the characterized B viruses, 177 (58%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 128 (42%) to the B-Victoria lineage.

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Detailed influenza update: |—Download PDF pdf, 603kb –|

Seasonal update: |-- Seasonal influenza reviews –|

|—AMRO | EURO | WPRO –|

|-- Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface (HAI) --|

|-- Disease outbreak news –|

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Worldwide; Seasonal Influenza.

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